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Alexandria, which was the forerunner of all modern grammars
and continued to be used in Constantinople so late as A.D. 1300,
or the Latin grammar of Remmius Palaemon (published circa
A.D. 70); and he had to make a careful study of declensions and
conjugations.   In addition to this kind of work, he discussed all
manner of questions about verbal forms.   For example:  Should
turbo be declined like Cato, and Calypso like Juno ?   Should the
ablative form be corona navale or navali ?   Should it be tera or
terra, narare or narrare, obtinuit or optinuit ?   After the elements
of grammar had been mastered, the study of Greek or Latin
literature (or of Greek and then Latin literature) began.    The
poets were the main subjects of study, but it was recognized, in
theory at least, that a complete course should also include the
prose writers.   The treatment was very thorough.   First came
the lectio, the reading of the work to be studied.   The " grammar-
ian " read the passage, and the pupil repeated it after him, trying
to give proper effect to his reading by careful attention to accent
and quantity.  Then followed enarratio, the teacher's commentary
on the passage, consisting of notes on the etymological and gram-
matical peculiarities, and on the references to history, mythology,
philosophy and science.   These notes had to be taken down as
the teacher lectured, and subsequently committed to memory.
With that went emendatio, textual criticism, the discussion of
variant readings, after the manner of the Alexandrian scholars.
And, finally, when the pupil was mature enough, judicium> a
critical estimate of the  characteristic features   of the  writer,
an appreciation of his merits and defects, perhaps also a com-
parison of him with other writers.   In addition to this elaborate
study of his authors, the boy had to reproduce stories in his owa
words, and to do various exercises in paraphrasing, to make
himself facile  in  the  use  of Greek *or Latin,  as  the  case
might be.   Obviously there was plenty of work to be done
before he was ready to leave the hands of the " grammarian "
and enter the Rhetoric school.    His training, ^LS Quintilian said,
quoting a Greek phrase, involved '* an encyclopedic education,"
which can only have been approximately completed in rare

After finishing his general education in literature, the lad
who looked forward to public life entered on the more technical
course of the rhetorician when he assumed the garb of manhood